News videos. Explainer videos. Sport videos. Money transfers. Health insurance. Money Deals. The Independent Books. Voucher Codes. Just Eat. National Trust. Premium Articles. Subscription offers. Subscription sign in. Read latest edition.
Air Pollution Science for the 21st Century, Volume 1
UK Edition. US Edition.
Log in using your social network account. Please enter a valid password. Keep me logged in. Try Independent Premium free for 1 month See the options.
Vehicle exhausts are a major source of the pollution that prematurely ends the lives of 40, people a year in Britain Getty. You can form your own view. Subscribe now.
- Table of Contents;
- Table of Contents!
- Air Pollution in the 21st Century, Volume 72?
- Environmental policy tools and evaluation!
Shape Created with Sketch. The worst countries in the world for air pollution deaths Show all Comments Share your thoughts and debate the big issues. Join the discussion. Please be respectful when making a comment and adhere to our Community Guidelines. Create a commenting name to join the debate Submit. Please try again, the name must be unique Only letters and numbers accepted. Loading comments Please try again, the name must be unique. Cancel Post. As technology enables better insight into the world we live in, we are increasingly aware of environmental health concerns and risks, from contaminated air and water to infectious diseases and light and noise pollution.
Because the quality of our lives depends on the quality of our environment, everyone should be informed about issues in environmental health. Environmental Health in the 21st Century: From Air Pollution to Zoonotic Diseases presents hundreds of encyclopedic entries written by expert researchers and practitioners, a history of environmental health, and interviews with subject experts that broadly survey the field of environmental health. The set covers myriad subjects in environmental health, including all types of environmental pollution; the spread of communicable diseases and other issues in the health sciences; waste management practices; the effects of climate change on human health; children's environmental health concerns; environmental health problems unique to the urban environment; and emerging threats such as the Zika virus and hospital-acquired infections.
Readers will learn about steps they can take to reduce their environmental risk, understand the effects of key international treaties and conventions and the contributions of key figures in environmental health, and also reflect on potential solutions for global challenges in environmental pollution, health sciences, energy and climate, waste management, and the built environment. No other book on the market today addresses the environmental health field in such a comprehensive manner, with the latest information provided by expert practitioners, all packed into two concise volumes.
Richard Crume is an environmental consultant, educator, and journalist with over 40 years of experience in the environmental health field, including 25 years with the U. In the development of new systems, this stage is ideal for innovation and creativity and represents a key opportunity to integrate environmental goals into the specifications of the products or processes. Through life-cycle and systems thinking—as well as green chemistry and green engineering, which emphasize designs that ensure that inputs, outputs, and processes are as inherently nonhazardous as possible—new designs can be implemented that rely on more benign materials and less energy, that do not generate much waste, and that do not shift environmental burdens from one place to another.
Benefits of such an integrated approach include wise use of resources, improved human health, and enhanced protection of natural systems.
- Panel discussion?
- The Collected John Carter of Mars (Volume 1)!
- Air pollution, ill health and the need for a 21st-century Model T Ford.
- Institutions and Comparative Economic Development?
- Air pollution | 21st Century Challenges.
- The Secret History of Fantasy.
Advances needed to support a circular economy include efficient and effective separation and recycling technologies and market forces or government incentives that recognize the broader impacts of pollution and waste see Challenge 5. Many of the most successful interventions focus on preventing the production or release of pollution or waste.
This strategy is generally easier and less expensive than remediating contamination sites after toxins are dispersed in the environment. For example, perchloroethylene, a widely used solvent for dry cleaning fabrics and metal degreasing operations and a likely carcinogen, has been replaced in these applications with supercritical carbon dioxide, which has low toxicity and is chemically stable, readily available, and easily recyclable. Another example is the recent movement away from subtractive manufacturing, a process by which three Instead, additive manufacturing, for example, 3-D printing constructs objects by successively depositing material in layers without the need to generate waste by cutting material away.
Air pollution is the ‘tobacco of the 21st century’, warn experts | The Independent
A growing number of zero-waste businesses and communities aim to reuse, recycle, or recover at least 90 percent of discarded material while also aiming to produce no pollutants to air, water, or land. Eliminating the use of the most toxic chemicals is an important part of green design. To develop nonpolluting components and processes and prevent future contamination, it will be important to fill knowledge gaps about the full environmental risks of new and existing contaminants. For example, methyl- tert butyl ether MTBE was added to gasoline to help reduce emissions in vehicle exhaust. However, MTBE became a groundwater quality problem once gasoline leaked from underground storage tanks because MTBE was able to migrate farther and was more resistant to biodegradation than other compounds in gasoline.
In addition, there are significant needs related to risk communication to help the public and decision makers understand the true costs of pollution. Under a linear production model, resources are used inefficiently and can become depleted as landfills expand. Recovering resources from waste recaptures the value of those materials and minimizes environmental impacts from further resource extraction. Localized or distributed recovery and reuse also reduces the energy requirements and pollution associated with transportation of materials and waste.
sevovehipli.tk Resource recovery can also address local resource shortages in economically depressed or geographically isolated communities. Precious and rare-earth metals could be retrieved from electronic waste and potentially even mined from landfills. Carbon capture systems could be used to turn carbon dioxide into forms that are useful for applications ranging from building materials to plastics to greener solvents. Recovery of resources from waste streams has long been practiced, but in a nonsystematic fashion.
In Dharavi, India, one of the largest slums in the world, people have built a thriving economy, employing approximately , people, based on recovering waste generated in Mumbai. Fly ash and gypsum by-products of coal combustion have been used in the manufacturing of concrete and wallboard. Resource recovery is rapidly being integrated into existing manufacturing, agricultural, and industrial practices, but much work remains to be done to realize its potential, both in terms of recovery yields and the types of resources that can be cost-effectively recovered.
A significant impediment to utilization of waste is that existing traditional waste streams have not been systematically characterized with resource recovery in mind. Local, regional, and global inventories of waste materials are needed to identify opportunities for reuse or inputs to other production schemes.
Preventing Pollution and Waste Through Improved Design
With this information, appropriate technologies for resource recovery can then be developed using physical, chemical, and biological processes that capture the maximum financial, social, and environmental benefits. This information could also lead industries to redesign their resource extraction and manufacturing processes to reduce waste and more efficiently and cost-effectively recover and reuse valuable resources.
Results of public programs to reduce, reuse, and recycle have been mixed. The United States, for instance, recycles or composts 35 percent of its municipal waste and less than 10 percent of its plastics, but higher rates are possible. Six countries recycle or compost more than half of their waste, led by Germany at 65 percent and South Korea at 59 percent. Sorting technology has been developed and commercialized for some wastes, such as separating organic from inorganic wastes. The extent of resource recovery from wastes could be enhanced by improved, cost-effective waste separation techniques.